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LIFE BOAT(a boat that can sustain the lives of people in distress when abandoning a ship)
Lifeboat is a special boat that is placed on board a ship to rescue occupants when the ship is in danger. Use paddles, sails, power machines, etc. The boat is often equipped with an air tank so that the boat still has sufficient buoyancy after entering the water to ensure the safety of the boat and the persons on board. There is also a certain amount of fresh water, food and daily necessities on the lifeboat of the seagoing vessel.
I. Classified by structure.
1). Open type lifeboat: It is a lifeboat without a fixed canopy;
2). Partially enclosed lifeboat: It is a fixed rigid canopy with no less than 20% of the length of the boat at the bow and the stern. There is a foldable canopy between them. The foldable canopy can be used by 1 or 2 people. A lifeboat propped up;
3). Totally enclosed lifeboat: It is a lifeboat with a fixed top cover on the upper part of the boat, which has good thermal insulation and water tightness.
II. Classified by material.
1). Galvanized steel boat: rarely used;
2). Aluminum boat: In the past, some lifeboats used this type of lifeboat;
3). FRP boat: It is a lifeboat that is woven with glass fiber and bonded with resin glue inside the structure. It is lightweight, strong, durable, and resistant to seawater corrosion. Most lifeboats use this material.
III. Classified by function.
1). Lifeboats with self-righting function: Some of the fully enclosed lifeboats have self-righting functions;
2). Lifeboats with self-supply gas systems: Some fully enclosed lifeboats have self-supply gas systems, which are equipped on oil tankers, chemical tankers and liquefied gas tanks. They are generally equipped with 4 cylinders, and the available time is not less than 10 min. It must not be lower than the atmospheric pressure outside the boat, nor exceed 20 hours above atmospheric pressure;
3). Lifeboat with fire-resistant and high-temperature resistance: The fire-resistant and high-temperature lifeboat is a fully enclosed lifeboat made of refractory material on the surface of the hull. It is mainly installed on ships such as oil tankers, chemical tankers and gas boats carrying cargo with a flash point below 60 °C. When the structure is on the water surface, it can protect its rated occupant from oil fire for not less than 8 minutes, and the boat has a self-supply gas system, and there is a water spray device outside the boat;
4. A lifeboat with free fall and water intake: it has a self-righting function that can quickly enter the water from the boat.
I. Construction of lifeboats
1). Lifeboat should maintain adequate stability;
2). The lifeboat shall have sufficient freeboard: the freeboard of the lifeboat shall be at least 1.5% or 100 mm of the length of the lifeboat, whichever is greater;
3). The buoyancy of the lifeboat: The lifeboat should have a certain amount of residual buoyancy and be guaranteed by the air box. When the boat enters the water and leaks through the sea, it is still sufficient to float the lifeboat full of rated occupants and all attachments;
4). The strength of the lifeboat:
(1) The metal boat has a load of 1.25 times the total weight of all the occupants and attachments, and the other lifeboats do not produce residual deformation after the load is 2 times the total weight;
(2) It can withstand at least a ship's impact force with a collision speed of 3.5 m/s and can be prevented from being damaged from 3 m high input water;
(3) When the ship is moving at a speed of 5 kn in calm water, the lifeboat can land in the water and be towed.
II. Rated occupants of lifeboats
1. The lifeboat occupant must not exceed 150 passengers;
2. The location of each occupant should be clearly marked in the boat.
III. Lifeboat marking
1. Lifeboats should be clearly marked with their dimensions and occupant quota;
2. The name of the lifeboat and the port of registry should be indicated on the bow and on both sides of the stern;
3. The sign identifying the submarine and lifeboat number of the lifeboat shall be visible from above;
4. The lifeboats are numbered in the order of the starboard and the port side is a double, from the bow to the stern, from top to bottom.
IV. Lifeboat propulsion device
1. The motor lifeboat shall be driven by a compression ignition four-stroke diesel engine;
2. The engine should be equipped with a hand start system or with two independent rechargeable power start systems;
3. The exhaust pipe should be arranged to prevent water from entering the engine that is functioning properly;
4. All batteries for engine starting, radio and searchlights should be equipped with recharging equipment.
V. Lifeboat fittings
1. All lifeboats (except free fall life boat) shall have at least one drain hole in the bottom of the boat and two bottom plugs in each drain hole;
2. A chain-ring floatable lifeline is installed outside the lifeboat for the dredger to climb the lifeboat;
3. There is a watertight cabinet in the lifeboat for storing small items, fresh water and rations;
4. The lifeboat's davit hook device can disengage the front and rear gondolas hooks when the haul hook is unloaded or the boat is fully loaded with a load of 1.1 times the total weight. The control handle has obvious signs. The hook of the hook is facing the center of the boat;
5. The lifeboat is equipped with a lamp or other light source for illumination for not less than 12 hours;
6. Each lifeboat shall be fitted with a disengagement device that will be able to disengage the front cable when tightened;
7. The lifeboat shall be provided with a reflective belt with a length of 300 mm and a width of 50 mm. Under a clear night sky, the reflection distance is not less than 500 m.
I. Lowering operation of fully enclosed lifeboat
After preparing for the necessary fixed rigging, the main tasks when releasing the boat are:
(1) Lift the brake handle of the davit and lower the boat to the level of the boat deck;
(2) All personnel board the boat in turn, and use the seat belt to secure themselves to the seat;
(3) When the captain confirms that the landing craft is correct, the last boarding, loosening the tightening rope and closing the boat door;
(4) Pull the pull ring of the remote control cable of the boat (pull down) to make the boat continue to land;
(5) The captain will start the boat and the machine will run;
(6) When the boat is about to enter the water, lift (or pull up) the linkage decoupling device, the first and last hooks of the boat are disengaged, and the boat enters the water;
(7) After the boat enters the water, throw the remote control down rope out of the lifeboat and block the through hole of the drop cable with a special pin plug;
(8) Pull the handle of the special control cable release device to disengage the first (tail) cable of the boat, use an outer rudder, enter the vehicle, and sail the boat away from the large ship.
II. Free landing lifeboat release operation
There are three methods for releasing free-fall lifeboats:
(1) Free fall to release the lifeboat into the water;
(2) using the davit to release the lifeboat into the water;
(3) The lifeboat freely floats out of the water by means of the action of the hydrostatic release mechanism, and escapes from the difficult ship.
The lifeboats are stored on the ship and can not affect the normal shipping production, but also meet the requirements of providing rapid, safe and convenient provision for the ship's persons to successfully board and escape from the ship in a timely manner during emergency response, and can be safely carried out. Survival action at sea. Therefore, the storage of lifeboats should meet certain requirements.
I. General requirements for the storage of lifeboats
1. The storage of each lifeboat shall:
1) that the lifeboat and its storage device will not interfere with the operation of any other survival craft or rescue boat stored at any other landing station;
2) as far as practicable, as close as possible to the surface of the water, where the boarding point is tilted to 10° when the ship is fully loaded and any side is heeled to 20° or dip to the edge of the ship's weather deck to immerse in water (taken In the unfavorable case of the smaller one, it should be no less than 2 m above the waterline;
3) in the state of continuous use preparation, so that 2 crew members can complete the preparation for boarding and landing in less than 5 minutes;
4) lifeboats should be fully equipped;
5) Where practicable, in a safe and sheltered area, protected from fire and explosion damage, especially lifeboats on tankers, should not be stored in cargo tanks, slop tanks or other explosive Or above the dangerous cargo compartment.
2. The lifeboat descending along the ship's side should be stored as far as possible before the propeller. In cargo ships of 80 m and over but less than 120 m, each lifeboat shall be stored at a position such that the rear end of the lifeboat is not less than the length of the lifeboat at least before the propeller. For cargo ships of 120 m in length and over and passenger ships of 80 m and above, each lifeboat shall be stored at a position such that the end of the lifeboat is not less than 1.5 times the length of the lifeboat before the propeller. If it is suitable, the ship's layout should protect the lifeboat in its storage position from damage caused by heavy waves.
3. The lifeboat shall be installed with its davit when it is stored.
II. Additional requirements for the storage of lifeboats for passenger ships
The storage height of the lifeboat on the passenger ship shall take into account the general requirements for the storage height of the lifeboat and shall meet the requirements for escape routes, the dimensions of the ship and the meteorological conditions that may be encountered in the proposed sea area.
For lifeboats that use for davit launching, the height between the top of the davit in its boarding position and the lightest carrying waterline should be no more than 15 meters.